Neyshabur city was founded on Sassanied era by king Shapoor I, so it was called Bishapoor, at first Neyshabur was a military stronghold as a fortification against nomadic tribes who invaded Iran's northeast, and sometimes looting to the center of the country. In 436 A.D. Neyshabur was conquered by the Muslims. Situated on the slopes of the Binaloud Mountains provide an excellent condition for developing this city. Good climate and fertile soil attract lots of immigrants to Neyshabur, and gradually Neyshabur became a major city and one of the focal points of civilization in the east of the country and Khorasan area. In the early Islamic centuries it became one of the most important cities of Iran. In addition Neyshabur became one of the main centers of struggle against the Arab Caliphate that during the time was under the rule of the Umvids and the Abbasids. After two centuries of ceaseless struggle against the occupiers the first independent Iranian government was established after entering Islam to Iran's geography. Advanced farming and being on the Silk Road route have made the city one of the major trading hubs. In Seljuk dynasty era Neyshabur for a long time was the capital of dynasty, in that period it was called Shadiyakh (place of happiness). As mentioned, the founding of Neyshabur goes back to the pre-Islamic era, after Islam Neyshabur was extending, till Seljuk dynasty era, in this time Oquz tribes attack to this city, the city was completely ruined, Shadiyakh was one of the neighborhood of Neyshabur, people little by little gathered there, so Shadiyakh get more important than Neyshabur.
In 1221 Neyshabur again was attacked by Central Asian and Far Eastern Nomadic and desert settlers. This time the story was so different, the invaders were Mongols lading by Genghis Khan, a nation whose cruelty is recorded in history. Due to the resistance of Shadiyakh against savage invaders, this area suffered severe retribution. The city was completely destroyed and the people of the city were slaughtered by the Mongols. One of the victims of this atrocity was Farid al-Din Attar Nishabury, one of the great mystics and Sufis of city. He is mentioned as a martyr of the Mongols invasion. Neyshabur never returned to its former position after the Mongol invasion.
On Paleolithic era and also Neolithic times stone has been used widely to make instrument. Soap stone and Alabaster are two important soft stones that during history in Middle East have been used to build containers and vessels. After pottery and copper age we see the sign of Bronze Age in this geography, the most using of this achievement have been done exactly in this time, its distribution ranges from Syria to India. Undoubtedly Iran because of situation and being in the center of trade road it’s a great place to find such vessels. The main important sits are Konar Sandal and Tape Yahya at Kerman province. The use of stone productions has been continued till to Islamic era, archaeological excavations appeared on the old city of Shadiyakh near to the Neyshabur city prove this claim. For six season archaeological excavations at Neyshabur lots of cultural goods including pottery, glass, statue, bones, metal, dishes, metal and other human remains have been discovered. Accordingly, the old town of Shadiyakh near Neyshabur is a large database for archaeologists. As a matter of fact it provides very important information about the culture, society, economic, welfare and business of this region throughout history.
The most important character of Neyshabur is Omar Khayyam, in fact Neyshabur in Iran is known with Khayyam name. Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) was born and spent most the life at Neyshabur, he has had a great education, so in his time was known as a great scientist. Khayyam was knowledge in different fields such as astronomy, math, philosophy, poet and literature.
Khayyam also wrote poetry in both Persian and Arabic and has written valuable books in various sciences. Khayyam was well-known in his time, and Khayyam's contemporaries have praised him for great titles such as Imam, philosopher, and Hojat al-Haq. Khayyam lived under the Seljuk Empire.
The famous Battle of Manzikert took place during Khayyam's youth between the Seljuk Empire and the Byzantine Empire. The war in which the army of Alp Arslan defeated Romanus IV and the Seljuk Empire reached the greatest possible extent. The war that gave rise to the Crusades between Muslims and Christians in the next years and centuries. Khayyam's life coincided with the reign of the Alp Arslan and Malik Shah on Seljuk Empire Era. The initial version of new and modern Solar Hijri calendar known as Jalali calendar was developed with the request of Malik Shah on 11th century by Omar Khayyam in collaboration with other Iranian astronomers and scientists. This calendar is named as one of the most accurate calendar of the world. Khayyam was a philosopher and mathematician who translated some of Avicenna books into Persian, and somehow he considers himself a student of Avicenna and becomes very influenced by his thinking. On math world Khayyam is famous for his famous treatise on algebra and cubic and polynomial equations.
In the literature, especially in the English speaking world, Omar Khayyam is the most famous Iranian Poet; his poems called Rubaiyat are very popular. English poet Edward Fitzgerald translated Khayyam's poetry for the first time in the nineteenth century, and the world became acquainted with this great figure.
One of the ancient and precious stone from the old time in Iran is turquoise, and the most famous mine of that is in Neyshabur. Centuries B.C. Turquoise is mined in Neyshabur, over time turquoise mining has expanded in Neyshabur. The shining green and blue colors make this stone very attractive. Many tunnels have been dug in the mines and extraction of this gemstone has been increased. The use of explosives increased the rate of extraction from the mid-nineteenth century. According to archaeological findings, Turquoise of Neyshabur was used in the decoration of the old palaces all over Iran; Susa Palaces are the good example of this case. One of the tourist attractions of Neyshabur is to visit the turquoise mines and the procedure of extraction. Carving stone in turquoise workshops is the other popular attractions of Neyshabur. Major consumption of turquoise is to make jewelry.
Tourist attraction of Neyshabur are: Tomb of Farid Al-Din Attar Neyshaburi, Tomb of Kamal-ol-Molk, Mausoleum of Khayyam, Great Caravansary of the city, Wooden Mosque, Shadyakh Historical Site, Bojan and Kharve Villages, Mount Binaloud Range, Khayyam Observatory.